Deposit insurance Poland


Polish and German banking system – the main features Both banking systems are two - tier ones, i.e. there are banks and the central bank, responsible
among others for the monetary policy. Polish banking system had a long break from market economy and about ten years ago two fundamental acts were passed by the Polish Parliament:
the Banking Act and the Act on the National Bank of Poland (central bank). Both allowed starting the new era for the Polish banking system. The German banking system has obviously much longer tradition in performing in the market economy.




Despite their relatively short history, deposit insurance schemes (DISs) are currently a common element of the banking system. In 2004, 83 explicite DISs operated around the world. The Bank Guarantee Fund (Bankowy Fundusz Gwarancyjny – BFG) – the Polish institution guaranteeing household deposits – is celebrating its 10th anniversary this year. Over its 10 years of active operation the BFG has proved that, along with the National Bank of Poland and the Commission for Banking Supervision, it is among the most important institutions protecting the Polish financial system from destabilisation. The introductory part of this paper presents the position of the Bank Guarantee Fund within the Polish financial safety net. Other guarantee schemes operating in the Polish financial services sector have also been presented. Moreover, the paper explains the reasons for the launching of a DIS and points out the purposes for the establishment of the BFG. Further, it describes the evolution of Polish deposit guarantee arrangements since 1982. Special emphasis has also been put on the analysis of Bank Guarantee Fund administration. The main aim of this paper is to describe Polish deposit insurance scheme. Particular features of the Polish scheme are discussed with reference to the Community regulations in this field and also arrangements adopted in the remaining 24 countries of the European Union. The third chapter of this paper describes the fundamental area of the Fund’s activity, i.e. guarantee activities consisting in making compensation payouts to depositors in the event of a bank’s bankruptcy. The scope of coverage (eligible types of deposits and depositors) offered by the Polish scheme has been analysed. The scope of the BFG’s guarantee activities from 1995 to 2004 has also been presented. In the fourth chapter, the BFG’s activities aimed at minimising risk in the banking sector have been presented. The principles and experience of the Fund regarding financial support for the rehabilitation of banks threatened with insolvency have been discussed in greatest detail here. The fifth chapter describes the principles and procedures regarding the financing of guarantee and assistance activities of the Bank Guarantee Fund. In the summary, the paper indicates possible directions for changes in the BFG legislation. It has been pointed out that despite the fact that Polish regulations comply with EU requirements,they must be adjusted to suit the changing domestic conditions.


The biggest German banks are at the top of the list of the biggest banks of the world, while the biggest Polish ones are in the fourth hundred of these banks’ list (according to “The Bankers”).
There have been recently a lot of changes in the ranking due to the bank mergers and acquisitions. Because of great differences in size between both systems I decided not to compare them2. Below I shall point out some features connected with the legal forms and the types of banks.
In Poland - according to the Banking Act - banks can be organised, as the joint –stock company, co-operative entity or the state - owned enterprise3. In Germany no specific legal form for conducting banking business is stipulated in the Banking Act, although since 1976 banks have been not allowed to operate in the form of sole proprietorship.
So in fact, there more legal forms for creating the bank in Germany, but some of them have rather historical meaning (e.g. general partnership or limited partnership, which are used by the private bankers).




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